Grammatical transformations refer to changes that occur in the structure of a sentence due to various grammatical rules, and when translating from English to Russian, these transformations are an essential part of the process. The fundamental difference between the two languages is that English is a SVO (Subject-Verb-Object) language, whereas Russian is an SOV (Subject-Object-Verb) language. This means that when translating from English to Russian, the word order must be changed, in addition to other grammatical transformations that may be necessary.
One of the most common grammatical transformations when translating from English to Russian is changing the word order. In English, the subject usually comes before the verb, while in Russian, the subject often comes after the verb. For example, the English sentence "He is eating pizza" would be translated into Russian as "он ест пиццу," where "он" (he) comes after "ест" (is eating). Another example is the English sentence "She saw the cat," which would be translated into Russian as "Она увидела кошку," where "она" (she) comes after "увидела" (saw).
Another significant grammatical difference between the two languages is the use of cases. Russian has six different cases, while English only has one (the subjective case). The use of cases in Russian allows for more precise and flexible sentence construction, but it can be challenging for English speakers to understand and use correctly. When translating from English to Russian, it is essential to adjust the case of the words to match the intended meaning of the sentence. For example, the sentence "I see the cat" would be translated as "Я вижу кота," where "кота" (cat) is in the accusative case.
In addition to word order and cases, there are other grammatical transformations that may be necessary when translating from English to Russian. For example, English often uses auxiliary verbs to express tense, while Russian uses suffixes. Therefore, when translating, it is necessary to add or remove auxiliary verbs and adjust verb endings accordingly. Additionally, English often uses phrasal verbs, which are combinations of a verb and a preposition (e.g., "give up" or "put on"). In Russian, phrasal verbs are replaced by separate verbs and prepositions (e.g., "отказаться" for "give up" or "надеть" for "put on").
In conclusion, when translating from English to Russian, grammatical transformations play a significant role in ensuring that the meaning of the original sentence is conveyed accurately. These transformations involve adjusting the word order, using the correct case, and adapting to the different rules of tense and verb form. Mastering these complex transformations is essential for producing high-quality translations that are clear, accurate, and grammatically correct.